Dressel 1to 6: wine amphoras; Dressel 1: Roman wine amphora, B.C. to 13 A.D.; Dressel 2: Roman wine amphora, 16 B.C. to 29 A.D.; Dressel 3: Roman. An amphora is a type of container of a characteristic shape and size, descending from at least .. The first type of Roman amphora, Dressel 1, appears in central Italy in the late 2nd century BC. This type had thick walls and a characteristic red . Distinctive Features. This was the most common type of late Republican Roman amphora. Following an early classificatory scheme by Lamboglia (), the.
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Most of the Dressel 1 at Elms Farm arrived at the very end of the lifetime of the form over a short period of time c. Internet Archaeology is an dresswl access journal. The vessel is assigned to that a,phora on the basis of its small handles that approach the neck horizontally Martin-Kilcher, abb. As one moves north from Essex into East Anglia, Dressel 1 is rare.
It weighed heavily with the writer that Gaulish amphora body sherds were present in small quantities at Late Iron Age Silchester, but where the precise form could not be identified Williams, ; Fulford and Timby In the Iron Age, Heybridge imported amphora-borne commodities on an exceptional scale for ammphora site in Britain.
File:Amphora Dressel 1B.svg
Roman merchants were certainly prepared to brave the perils of residence in foreign parts. The amphora complements the large storage container, the pithoswhich makes available capacities between one-half and two and one-half tons.
Racks could be used in kitchens and shops. An unresolved problem for Dressel 20 in Britain is the secure identification of its rare successor form, Dressel 23 Carreras Monfort and Funari Internet Archaeology content is preserved for the long term with the Archaeology Data Service.
Identical handles are found on the inelegantly named mid-Roman Campanian amphoras of the 2nd to early 4th centuries AD. Even across the Thames in Kent, Dressel 1 amphoras are noticeably less common Hull and Hawkes Painted stamps, tituli pictirecorded the weight of the container and the contents, and were applied after the amphora was filled.
Amphora Types According to Dressel
For the ampyora fifteen years, there has been a lively debate on the classification of typological variants within the Dressel 1 family. Production of the form continued until the third quarter of the 3rd century AD when it evolved into the successor form, Dressel 23 Carreras Monfort and Funari13, with refs.
One has shallow grooves or corrugations Amphirano. The following 2 pages uses this amphorz Panathenaic prize amphora in the black-figure style, showing the goddess Athena.
Dressel at Elms Farm: Panellafelt that Dressel forms were too common in Flavian contexts at Ostia to be explained as residual material. The oval handles of Pascual 1 are likewise distinctive; sometimes a narrow groove runs down the outer face Figuredresse Body sherds were taken to be Dressel 1 if they were in excess of 20mm. At the rich c. In practice this means that the only other type in this fabric definitely attested Haltern 70 is probably under-represented in the sherd count and sherd weight database.
There were no Iron Age imports of Gaulish wine at Elms Farm, and the identity of the sherds as Gauloise 4 is not in doubt. Although the floruit of the form did not range beyond Nero Baudoux46it was still current under the Flavians van der Werff, and – much changed typologically – into the 2nd century Martin-Kilcher Most Dressel 1 stamps are found on the rim Henon; the only ones regularly found on the dresssel are two-letter stamps. Although there were great ports in antiquity with hinterlands, such as Alexandria or Ostia, the relative costs of land, inland waterway and sea transport before the advent of railways encouraged the use of water transport wherever possible Duncan Jones Sometimes, such handles are formed from two separate rods of clay which were luted together.
The seven wine amphoras four of which are Dressel 1 from pyre-related features form a significant proportion of those from the Late Iron Age settlement. The cylindrical body form of Dressel is much the same as Dressel 1 with significantly thinner walls.
A port need leave no archaeological trace of the commodities or containers that pass through it: It is becoming increasingly common now at least in French excavation reports to give the diameter, height, thickness and angle of inclination of Dressel 1 rims. A word of caution should be sounded at the outset about simple equations between wine amphoras and political affiliations. This is part of a trend across Britain and Gaul and reflects the increased demand for wine in Italy from Augustus onwards.
After the Roman invasion the picture changed, and quickly. At first sight, the sherd count and sherd weight data suggest that imports of the form were ampgora their height in Ceramic Phase 3 but this masks a far more interesting picture in which wine imports to Heybridge actually declined dramatically in that period.
So monumental was the effort to provision Germanicus for his campaign across the Rhine in AD 15 that Italy and the western provinces offered arms, horses and gold Tacitus Annals 1. Moreover, a black sand fabric rim published from Heybridge as Dressel can now be seen on the basis of its typology to be another mid-Roman Campanian vessel Wickenden58, fig.
Only one was found, on the base of a handle from Late Iron Age pit The largest stands as tall as 1.
When they did, the need for the army to draw supplies from Britain receded. Resinated wines are indicated by the inscriptions mentioning picat um ; sometimes they are specified as mature vetus. Where the rim measurements were taken is explained by Figure The form has been reported from late 2nd century AD contexts at Ostia and Rome, but not apparently elsewhere. It is also present in some numbers in the eastern Mediterranean Will, ; Lund, Nowhere inland from Heybridge has such a large concentration of Dressel 1.
The differential levels of research and recording dwelt on by Fitzpatrick cannot account for such variations, at least in Britain. Imports of Gaulish amphoras were flagging by Ceramic Phase 5 c. There is still no satisfactory metrological scheme for defining subdivisions of the form.
Supplying the frontier armies remained a taxing logistical problem until the agrarian regimes of Belgic Gaul and the Rhineland had adjusted themselves to the demand Roymans As the body tapers from a broad shoulder towards a more-or-less narrow base, the configuration of larger body sherds can often help in the recognition of examples.
Following the exceptional amphora deposit uncovered in Rome in Castro Pretorio at the end of the s, he collected almost inscriptions from amphorae and included them in the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum.
The same analyses rule out an origin drezsel Rhodes; a conclusion corroborated by field surveys on the island that failed to find the form at any of the amphora workshops located there Empereur and Picon Declining volumes of wine reaching Britain explain why the provision of wine at elite funerals became less generous after the end of Dressel 1. This need ampnora have been an inadvertent convergence of practice between widely separated cultures, but instead the conscious adoption of Roman mores by Britons with access to the fruits of Mediterranean civilisation.