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Crestal bone; alveolar process; mandible. However, apical patency was not obtained in one of the canals, which was 1 mm short of the radiographic apex.

The periapical radiograph is considered an essential resource in the clinical practice of various dental specialties.

SEM revealed the presence of only 1AF after a complete scanning of the entire root surface. The visualization of some areas of the mandible during radiographic analysis is not always possible due to anatomical variations, which generate difficulties for image interpretation. According to Seltzer and Bender 16it is impossible to differentiate between the resorption that occurs in the vestibular alveolar crest from that in the lingual alveolar fiugn using periapical radiographs.

Although this study did not investigate accessory foramina, it is worth mentioning how often they were identified by SEM, which confirms that the maxillary 1st premolar is the fundional that most often presents an apical delta 5.

Considering the whole sample, the interference in one site was Thirty-nine human maxillary 1st premolars with fully developed roots, no root fractures and a longitudinal sulcus on the buccal surface of the buccal root were selected. Root form and canal anatomy of maxillary first premolars.

Of the 39 specimens examined in the present investigation, only 35 could be classified according to the number of root canals and apical foramina, based on the findings of radiographic examination. Results The obtained results showed that the oblique line was detected in radiographs, representing In the present study, periapical radiographs were analyzed to investigate the number of canals of the buccal root of maxillary 1st premolars with longitudinal sulcus, and compare the number of apical foramina observed on the radiographs to that revealed by scanning electron microscopy SEM.


Anatomía odontológica – Humberto Aprile, Mario Eduardo Figún, Ricardo Rodolfo Garino – Google Books

These radiographs are hampered by the overlap of the roots and other anatomic structures associated with the reproduction of the radiographic image Lack of knowledge of internal dental anatomy and anatomic variations may lead to errors in identification, instrumentation and obturation of root canals 1.

These findings confirm that maxillary 1st premolars with 2 root canals are similar to the maxillary 1st molars. The rationale was that the transparent specimens used by Vertucci 20 do not fit for radiographic assessment. Kartal N, Yanikoglu FC. Odontologia oblique line is considered a reinforcement and dissi- pation line of the mandible efforts.

Primeiro molar superior

Projection of the oblique line in periapical radiographs of mandibular molars. In a study by Rees et al.

This occurs due to the overlap of anatomic structures, such as the mental protuberance, mental foramen, submandibular fovea, mylohyoid line, and oblique line. This study analyzed periapical radiographs of the left and right sides of the mandibular molar region. Conclusions Funcionql the results obtained in the present study, it is possible to affirm that the overlap of the oblique aplicaa over the alveolar crest images in the mandibular molar region represented a significant part of the analyzed sample.

Anatomia, embiologia e histologia bucal.

Mario Eduardo Figun (Author of Anatomia Odontologica Funcional Y Aplicada)

The purposes of this study were to assess radiographically the funcionnal of canals of the buccal root of maxillary 1st premolars with longitudinal buccal sulcus, and to compare the number of apical foramina AF found on radiographs to that revealed by scanning electron microscopy SEM. The alveolar process is responsible for the implantation of the mandibular teeth, is characterized by eight bilateral sockets formed by the anterolateral and posterolateral bone walls, and is separated by independent bone septa.


The root apices were soaked in 2. Conflict of Interest Statement: The maxillary 1st premolar usually has two roots that may be either odontooogica or partially or totally fused. Five hundred periapical radiographs of the mandibular molar region were selected and aplicadda for the presence or absence of the oblique line. The specimens were mounted on labeled stubs using graphite powder and clear nail polish, with their apical surfaces facing upward. Odontllogica alveolar process corresponds to the compact bone layer that covers the dental alveolus, enclosing the root lamina dura and limiting the interdental crest alveolar crest 5.

The overlap of that structure was verified in the following regions: In some cases, the exploratory files did not achieve the full length of the root canal, but were very close to the apical foramen and so the classification of the specimen was obvious.

The roof of the pulp chamber was completely removed and access to the root canals was obtained without touching the floor of the chamber. Additionally, radiography is a commonly available diagnostic method in daily dental practice. The authors state that there are no financial and personal conflicts of interest that could have inappropriately influenced their work. This method of varying the periapical technique could also be applied to the mandibular molar region during the detailed evaluation of the alveolar crests.

The incidence of the overlap was Some studies suggest alternatives to differentiate the image of the oblique line from the image of the alveolar crests in the mandibular molar region.

The number of apical foramina identified under SEM is shown in Table 4. And there was interference in radiographs However, in 55 radiographs

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