The vessel shall not tender Notice of Readiness prior to the earliest layday date specified in this Charterparty and laytime shall not commence before hours . Four key events must occur before the commencement of laytime begins. 3. Commencement of laytime. Normally three conditions must be satisfied before the charterer can be required to start loading or.

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What is the difference between grounding and stranding? For example the Asbatankvoy form provides for notice by ” letter, telegraph, wireless or telephone “.

Fixed laytime charters are traditionally divided into berth, dock and port charters depending on where the voyage stages end and these will be considered in more detail later. Laytime for loading and discharging shall commence at 1 p.

Clause 14 of the Shellvoy 3 form of charter which unlike most tanker charterparties is a berth charter requires the vessel to be securely moored before laytime can commence and this, it is suggested, would be the position in any event. Until then no obligation could lie upon the charterer to load the cargo, or to receive it, as the case might be.

The charter is a contract and, as the judge said in the above case, “a contract is a contract” and if there is any dispute arbitrators and the courts will regard a contract strictly.

In those circumstances, a shipowner will be entitled to tender NOR if the vessel has reached the usual waiting area for the port, irrespective if that area is outside port limits.

BERTH shall mean the specific place where the Vessel is to load or discharge and shall include, but not be limited to, any wharf, anchorage, offshore facility or other location used for that purpose. The ship therefore reaches commencemeng specified destination, not when she reaches the geographical area named in the charter, but when she reaches the first berth, dock or port named by the charterer and the charter is accordingly a berth, dock or port layti,e.

The charterers may choose to accept an otherwise invalid notice. On the question of when the vessel became an Arrived ship, Smith LJ who dissented on the main issue commencement Therefore, under a berth charter, the risk of congestion or other delays in berthing is generally allocated to the shipowner rather than the charterer.

Usually the phrases quoted have other applications in the charterparty and are agreed, for example, to limit the number commencemrnt berths that may be used in each port.

This means that the vessel must layrime both. This may be in the form of a warranty on the part of the charterers that, upon arrival at the loading or discharging port, the vessel will be able to proceed directly to berth.

They did, however, hold that the owners were not to be denied their remedy because they had complied with the orders. As a matter of principle, however, the judge confirmed that an acceptance of an invalid notice in circumstances where the charterers were unaware of the inaccuracy in the notice could not bind the charterers and they were not prevented from subsequently disputing the effect of the notice.


If the charterers and the owners who agree to voyage charter terms choose to make laytime refer to the happening of a particular event, that is the way the law will regard the commencement of laytime, not as if the contract contained in the.

Commencement of Laytime in Voyage Charterparties – Plimsoll

On instructions from the terminal, the vessel berthed and started to load at hours on the same day. The practical effect of a non-contractual notice which is tendered outside the required time is, that while it may not be effective to start the laytime clock running, the defect may be “cured” by, for example, the passage of time and laytime will start at that point.

The contents of the NOR must be statements of existing facts. The subject of Commencement of Laytime is extensive. This effect commencemment only in the situation where a berth is not available for the vessel on its arrival.

A brief history of laytime – Skuld

Beaufort wind scale Force 4. Beaufort wind scale Force 1. Validity of the notice of readiness A notice of readiness therefore contains several statements of fact. Laytime will not begin immediately upon the tendering of notice of readiness. The charterers argued that they were not responsible for these delays. These concern the arrival and readiness of the vessel and the tender of the Notice of Readiness “NOR”.

The charterers ordered the vessel to discharge at Porto Torres in Sardinia and, after arrival at that port, ordered her in succession to proceed to Houston for orders, which the owners challenged, to wait outside Porto Torres for instructions, to proceed to New York for orders and finally to discharge at Genoa.

Commenvement, the usual waiting place must be within port limits and, unless the charter expressly states commenccement, if the waiting place is outside the limits of the port, then NOR cannot be validly tendered. In this respect early NOR does not oblige the Charterer to start loading before the earliest layday, but the Owner is obliged to start loading before that date if ordered to do so 1 and that order is the sanction that means clause 5 “Laytime shall not commence before the date stipulated However, a charterer may be found to have accepted an otherwise invalid notice on the basis of the legal doctrines of waiver and estoppel.

It is therefore important that both owners and charterers are able to effectively analyse the terms of the charterparty which deal with the conditions which need to be satisfied commencemen the laytime clock starts running.

The crew of non-UK officers and ratings commencement to join two days later. It by no means follows, in the absence of this definition being specifically incorporated into the relevant charter, that all anchorages where vessels may have to wait will be deemed to be within port limits. A notice that falls within the second category may still be regarded as valid. In the High Court, Donaldson J held 23 there was no implied term, as had been suggested, that if the charterers failed to nominate the port of discharge within the time limited commencemeent the charter or within some further period thereafter, the master could himself make the nomination.


In the High Court, the judge agreed with the Charterers that their emails of 6 and 7 January commehcement neither explicit nor implicit consent to the commencement of laytime, but only to the early service of the NOR and commencemenf charterers wanted the vessel to berth and commence loading early.

This was clearly not the case and the notice was therefore invalid and could not trigger the commencement of laytime.

A brief history of laytime

As mentioned at the outset, the law relating to the commencement of laytime is expansive and not straightforward. It will not do, for instance, to choose a dock the entrance to which is blocked — that would be practically no exercise at all of the option.

Why do some cargo ships have more than one set fommencement load lines marked, i. In a unanimous decision this was rectified on appeal and the recent decision reflects both commercial and common sense. No further Notice of Readiness was given.

Disagreement may give rise to further disputes between the contracting parties. A valid Notice of Readiness could only be given when the vessel was securely moored at berth. When these conditions have been met, the vessel is an Arrived ship and, subject to the expiry of any period prescribed in the charter, laytime begins to run. Readiness of the Vessel The second comencement for commmencement commencement of laytime is that the vessel fo be ready in all respects to load or discharge the cargo.

The Adolf Ov [] 2 Lloyd’s Rep. If she is at a place commenfement waiting ships lie, she will be in such a position unless in some extraordinary circumstances proof of which would lie on the charterer …. Therefore, this article is intended to be a brief overview of the main conditions that are generally required for laytime or, if applicable, demurrage to commence, together with references to the significant supporting case law underpinning the guiding principles.

The decision is welcome further evidence of the court’s appreciation of commercial common sense. Charterers argued that the clauses had to be read separately, and that the effect of clause 31 was that, without a further express written consent i.

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