Seed -. Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. Achyrocline+satureioides>. Introducción: Achyrocline satureioides es una planta que ha sido ampliamente utilizada en la medicina popular y los estudios experimentales confirman sus. Three Achyrocline satureioides (AS) inflorescences extracts were characterized: ( i) a freeze-dried extract prepared from the aqueous extractive.
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To receive news and publication updates for Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, enter your email address in the box below. Correspondence should be addressed to Karla Suzana Moresco ; moc. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Three Achyrocline satureioides AS inflorescences extracts were characterized: The chemical profile, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogenic bacteria of AS extracts were evaluated.
In vitro antioxidant activity satureiojdes determined by the total reactive antioxidant potential TRAP assay. In vivo analysis and characterization of intestinal microbiota were performed in male Wistar rats saline versus treated animals with AS dried extracts by high-throughput sequencing analysis: Antimicrobial activity was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion tests.
AS exhibited antioxidant activity, especially in its freeze-dried form which also exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogenic bacteria greater achyrpcline those observed by the antibiotic, amoxicillin, when tested against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of AS extracts seemed to be positively correlated with the present amount of flavonoids. These findings suggest a potential use of AS as a coadjuvant agent for treating bacterial-induced intestinal diseases with high rates of antibiotic resistance.
Many bacterial pathogens associated with epidemics of gastrointestinal tract disorders in humans, such as Escherichia coliSalmonella spp.
Pharmacological investigations on Achyrocline satureioides (LAM.) DC., Compositae.
The extensive use of antibiotics over the last decade has led to the emergence of bacterial resistance and the dissemination of resistant genes among pathogenic microorganisms [ 2 ]. In recent years, several associations between common chronic human disorders and an altered composition and function of the gut microbiome have been reported [ 3 — 6 ].
Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are induced by oxidative stress and overproduction of reactive oxygen species ROSwhich accumulate under abnormal conditions and contribute to the rapid development of inflammation [ 8 ].
Many of the chemical constituents of plants, such as flavonoids, have been described as scavengers of the superoxide anion, hydroxyl radicals, and peroxyl radicals, as well as being inhibitors of key enzymes of mitochondrial respiration [ 9 — 11 ].
The use of plant extracts in folk medicine has been widely proposed as an important factor for the positive selection of intestinal organisms that metabolize or resist these secondary plant compounds.
Many satureioidse polyphenols are not absorbed in the small intestine and can interact with colonic microbiota, producing diverse metabolites with a variety of physiological roles [ 12 ]. Previous studies of the composition of A. Other phenolic constituents, including achyrofuran and satureiiides derivatives, have shown some antibacterial effects [ 1617 ] without causing any bacterial resistance or adverse side effects.
However, to the best of our knowledge, no reports regarding the relationship between aglycone and achyrobichalcone, the major flavonoids present in A. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate the chemical profile, the antioxidant potential in vitro, and the antimicrobial activity of A. The following compounds were used for the experiments and were of high performance liquid chromatography HPLC grade: The flavonoid 3-O-methylquercetin was purchased from Extrasynthese France.
Three extracts from A. The aqueous extractive solution was prepared via decoction and then freeze-dried. The extraction time was eight days, with occasional stirring [ 18 ].
All chemical composition analyses of A. The protein content was quantified using the Kjeldahl method, with a converting factor of 5. Lipid analyses were performed by extraction with ethyl ether using a Soxhlet extractor.
Reducing, nonreducing, and total sugar analyses were carried out according to the Lane-Eynon method [ 20 ]. The loss on drying analysis was conducted per the method outlined by the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists [ 20 ].
Larger particles that did not pass through the mesh were ground and sieved again until the entire sample passed through. Satureioifes dried samples were stored in sealed plastic vials until further processing. The instrumental parameters were optimized, and the method was adopted per a previous report [ 21 ].
To determine fluorine content, samples 0. The instrumental parameters were optimized, and the method was adopted per a previous report [ 22 ]. The solution was filtered through a 0. Evaluations for each sample were repeated three times.
LC analysis of A. Samples were diluted in methanol: Total reactive antioxidant potential TRAP was used as an index of the nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity of A.
A smaller AUC in relation to the system indicates a higher total reactive antioxidant potential. TAR is closely related to the quality of the antioxidants within the sample. Higher TAR values represent a greater antioxidant capacity of the sample [ 23 ]. This assay determines the ability of antioxidants to reduce iron. The ferrous ion-chelating ability of the extracts was determined as previously described [ 25 ].
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTAa known chelating agent, was used to construct a standard curve 0. This assay measures the antioxidant activity of a substance against hydroxyl radicals. The formation of hydroxyl radicals from the Fenton reaction is used to quantify the oxidative degradation of 2-deoxyribose 2-DR.
To better represent the diversity of each group, the feces were pooled where 4 wells were made for each per group on the tubes. The remaining sequences were dereplicated, sorted by decreasing read abundance, and then filtered to exclude singletons using USEARCH v7. The antibacterial activity of A. A pilot trial was initially performed with three extracts to evaluate the bacterial growth inhibiting capacity of the extracts. Subsequently, zones of growth inhibition represented by clear haloes were measured and depicted as an inhibition zone mm.
Based on the results of this initial experiment, antibacterial and bacteriolytic activities were observed with the freeze-dried hydroalcoholic extract only. Inhibitory capacity was the greatest against B.
The reference antibiotics used as positive controls were chloramphenicol, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin. Broth bacterial cultures and test samples were mixed for optical density measurements. A value of was considered statistically significant. Our results show that the level of reducing sugars and lipids in the aqueous extract was lower than that in the source plant material Table 1.
Loss on drying measurements of the extracts ranged from 5. Analyses of heavy metals lead, cadmium, and chromium and fluorine content in the extracts and original plant material revealed that the aqueous extract contained higher levels of lead, cadmium, and fluorine than the plant material and the two extracts prepared from the hydroethanol extractive solution.
The plant material and all extracts contained concentrations of heavy metals that were below harmful limits Table 2. Finally, three major flavonoid aglycones and a chalcone were quantified, namely, quercetin, 3- O -methylquercetin, luteolin, and achyrobichalcone, respectively Figure 1. The flavonoid content in both the freeze-dried and spray-dried extracts was approximately twofold higher than that found in the freeze-dried aqueous extract Further, the two drying methods did not influence the content of the extracts.
The antioxidant potential was higher for the freeze-dried extract, which showed a better quenching potential against peroxyl radical than that of the spray-dried and aqueous extracts, as determined by the TRAP assay andresp. When the flavonoid and chalcone content were analyzed in the extracts separately, we observed that the antioxidant activity could be attributed to synergism between the four extract compounds rather than a specific phenolic constituent.
Reduction equivalents of the freeze-dried extract 0. In addition, the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the extracts was similar to that of the positive control 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromancarboxylic acid [Trolox] Figure 3 b.
Further, the extracts possessed significant ferrous ion-chelating properties, as determined via the assay Figure 3 c. Finally, the extracts were efficient for protecting against lipid peroxidation, presenting values close to those exerted by Trolox and being slightly above those of the negative control Figure 3 d. The abundance and diversity of the gut microbiota in rats supplemented with A. The proportion of bacterial phyla present in the intestinal microbiota of rats that received the freeze-dried extract was not significantly different from that of the controls, as shown in the Venn diagram displaying genotypes of the control group versus the group that received treatment Figure 5.
Bacteria from the Proteus genus were exclusively found in the group treated with A. A pilot trial was conducted using the three extracts to determine the growth inhibiting capacity for different bacteria.
Among all the bacteria tested, we chose the three strains showing the greatest inhibition for further testing.
Specifically, the antibacterial effects of freeze-dried A. As can be seen in Figure 6gram-positive strains are intrinsically resistant to amoxicillin, and evidence indicates that the antibacterial effects of A. However, additional tests are required for further confirmation. Currently, resistance to antimicrobials is a global problem of increasing importance that endangers the efficacy of antibiotics, which have transformed medicine and saved millions of lives [ 35 ].
In the present study, we characterized the chemical composition, antioxidant properties, and antimicrobial activities exerted by dried A.
We observed that the antibacterial effects of the freeze-dried extract were greater than those exerted by amoxicillin an antibiotic used as a positive control when tested against B. One hypothesis is that such effects are attributable to the lipophilic compounds in the extract interacting with the hydrophobic part of the bacterial membrane, thereby affecting membrane anisotropy and dipolar organization.
Screening natural products satureioixes antimicrobial activity has resulted in the discovery of higher plants as a potential source of new antibacterial agents [ 37 ], and the use of natural products derived from plants is a potential therapeutic alternative to antibiotics.
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Further, screening chemical compounds coming from natural products for antimicrobial activity represents an alternative strategy for the development of novel drugs. For centuries, preparations containing flavonoids as the principal physiologically active constituent have been used to treat human diseases [ 38 ]. Some researchers have reported synergy between naturally occurring flavonoids and other antibacterial agents against resistant strains of bacteria [ 161738 ].
Evidence indicates that among the phenol derivatives analyzed in the A. However, other structural analogues of this same class of flavonoids would need to be synthesized and examined before the effect of halogenation upon antibacterial activity can be properly assessed. For instance, methoxy groups reportedly drastically decrease the antibacterial activity of flavonoids [ 39 ], and these data may explain the lack of inhibition observed in 3- O -methyl-quercetin, the major phenolic compound in the freeze-dried extract.
Previous reports have suggested that the antibacterial properties of flavonoids such as quercetin may play a role in inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis [ 40 ]. Further, chalcones may exert antibacterial effects by changing the permeability of cellular membranes and damaging membrane function or inhibiting energy metabolism [ 41 ].
Although there are comparatively few studies regarding the mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced antibacterial activity, numerous studies from the literature indicate that different natural products and phytochemicals e. The intestinal microbiota are considered symbiotic in nature and are involved in various processes, including the breakdown and absorption of nutrients, production of vitamins and hormones, and prevention of colonization by pathogens.
Failure to achieve or maintain this equilibrium between a host and its microbiota leads to dysbiosis, which has negative consequences for both intestinal and systemic health [ 45 ]. Our results show that the abundance and diversity of the gut microbiota in rats supplemented with the freeze-dried extract prepared from a hydroethanol extractive solution were not significantly different from those of the control.
This is an important result because studies have shown that several diseases that are associated with altered barrier function and increased permeability of the epithelium are linked to changes in the microbiota population or reductions in the diversity of the microbiota [ 46 ].